Introduction to UFOlogy Basics

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UFO South Africa

UFO South Africa

The purpose of this article is simply as a guide for those just getting into UFOlogy. It is not meant to provide any answers. If anyone tells you that they have the answers, they are lying to you.

This is simply an overview of the most common words, most infamous incidents, individuals, locations, documents, programs, theories, history and aspects of the UFO and ET phenomena.  Consider this article as a way to familiarize yourself with the basic terminology, concepts, theories and history of UFO’s and extraterrestrials. Think of it as a crash course in the very basics which can then be used as a foundation to look deeper into specifics whether it be reported events, theories or specific individuals.

This is designed to be an overall review and therefore we won’t get too deep into any specific area.


Kenneth Arnold

Kenneth Arnold

Although an argument can be made for UFO’s being reported as far back as ancient times with the Egyptians and even before, we’re going to focus on what is generally considered the beginning of modern UFOlogy which all started on June 24th, 1947 with a man named Kenneth Arnold.

On that day, Mr. Arnold (an experienced pilot with over 9,000 hours) was flying near Mt. Rainier in Washington State. He reported seeing 9 objects flying at incredibly high speeds. He described them as behaving like a saucer skipped across water. From this, the press quickly coined the new terms “flying saucer” and “flying disc” to describe such objects. Although he later argued that the craft were more crescent shaped, the name had stuck and flying saucers were born.

He was flying in a SE direction towards Idaho and lost the craft near Mt. Adams. Interestingly enough, Mt. Adams is today considered one of the most highly active UFO areas in the United States.

Only 13 days later something else happened that is still considered the most relevant UFO event to date in the history of the United States (and quite possibly the world). And that, is how it all started.


The Roswell Incident

The Roswell Incident

The Roswell Incident took place in 1947, when an airborne object crashed on the ranch of William Brazel near Roswell, New Mexico, on July 7th. The reported crash actually took place near Corona, New Mexico, which is approximately 105 miles NW of Roswell but Roswell was the larger town and was associated with the RAAF (Roswell Army Air Field) and so to this day most people assume the crash took place in Roswell.

The explanations by the military covered a wide range of excuses and changed multiple times from crashed flying saucer, to a simple weather balloon, to Project Mogul (Cold War eavesdropping) to crash test dummies.

There are many that believe two objects actually crashed at that time and the reasons why range from lightning strikes to mid-air collision to radar interference. There is no shortage of information or theories to pursue in regards to researching this incident which is still going strong today.

KAPUTSIN YAR (The Russian Roswell)

Kapustin Yar - Alien Body

Kapustin Yar – Alien Body

So by 1947 the US is said to have had several crashed alien craft gathered from New Mexico and Russia desperately wanted one of their own. They set out to sacrifice MIG pilots by ordering them to attack anything in the sky they couldn’t identify. As luck would have it, in 1948 just such a craft was spotted over the most secret and secure military site in all of Mother Russia, Kaputsin Yar.

The story goes that a MIG engaged the silver, cigar-shaped craft and both ended up falling to Earth. That’s the beginning of many strange stories regarding Kaputsin Yar.

This location is sort of a cross between Area 51 and Roswell. It’s the site of crashes as well as a super secret military testing facility.

The History channel has an entire program about Kaputsin Yar, oddly enough titled Russian Roswell. It’s a good place to start if you’re interested in learning more about it.


Kecksburg. PA

Kecksburg. PA

One of the next significant cases was in Kecksburg, Pennsylvania in 1965. Many UFOlogists will argue that the Aztec, New Mexico, case of 1948 should be here but that case is still too full of controversy for me so Kecksburg it is.

The Kecksburg case is one with a lot of eyewitness testimony that seems to all be pretty consistent. By all accounts the military swooped in very quickly on this one and threatened civilians, left with a large item covered up on a flatbed truck then denied anything of any significance ever took place.

If this was a meteor (as some have claimed) it shouldn’t be secretive and also would have devastated the area (based on the reported size of the object by eyewitnesses). A meteor also would have been disintegrated on impact but that’s neither here nor there. If this was a Russian object (as some have claimed), the implications for national security would have worn off long ago making this declassified. By all accounts something crashed into the woods, was taken away by the military and to this day nobody is talking.

Yet another theory is that this was possibly a time travel device or UFO created by the NAZI’s in the 1940’s known as Die Glocke (the bell). If this was a NAZI device involving time travel or some other form of travel, it would explain the secrecy to this day. It would also explain why the military appeared to be waiting for its arrival and was on site so quickly with the appropriate gear to extract and remove the object. This is the theory that I am leaning towards. A NAZI time travel device, and that the government knew when and where it would be arriving.


Rendlesham Forest

Rendlesham Forest

In December of 1980 one of the most well-known UFO incidents occurred in England. What makes this so unique is the quality of the witnesses involved. These men were responsible for our nuclear weapons in the UK and were highly trained individuals.

It’s possible that there is more information to study regarding this reported incident than any other case to date, partially due to it taking place on military installations and the attention to detail that was made at the time the events were taking place. Not to mention the willingness of these individuals to step forward.

This took place over a 2-3 night period involving highly trained military personnel who took hand-written notes as well as audio notes while the incidents were taking place.

This incident is categorized as a close encounter of the 2nd kind since physical evidence was reported at the site of the incident.


Since we’re on the subject, let’s break down the 4 types of close encounters.

  • Close Encounters of the First Kind – Basically a UFO sighting.
  • Close Encounters of the Second Kind – A UFO incident that leaves behind physical evidence. (Radiation levels, landing gear marks, etc.)
  • Close Encounters of the Third Kind – Seeing or coming into contact with inhabitants of the object or craft.
  • Close Encounters of the Fourth Kind – Alien abduction.


Phoenix Lights

The Phoenix Lights

Although known as the Phoenix Lights, this incident was seen and reported from Nevada to Sonora, Mexico. On March 13th, 1997, at least one object (and some witnesses indicate at least two and possibly several) reported to be approximately 1 mile across, slowly and silently moved along a 300 mile path crossing over Phoenix, Arizona.

This main object was even reported by the governor of Arizona at that time. The military of course claimed this to simply be flares dropped by aircraft but unfortunately were way off on the time that these flares were dropped which was basically well after the object was out of sight.

A very interesting case to study based on the amount of video that was taken during the event and the high number of individuals who claimed to have witnessed these events.

OK, we’ve covered some high-profile sightings from 1947 to 1997 as well as the person initially responsible for reporting UFO’s in the modern era. Now let’s move on to the most high profile (as well as the initial) individuals that claim to have met the occupants of these craft face to face.


Betty & Barney Hill

Betty & Barney Hill

If you were asked to find the most unassuming couple to report an alien abduction you would be hard pressed to find anyone that met that criteria more than Betty & Barney Hill. An interracial couple in 1961 wouldn’t necessarily go out of their way to make the news.

Betty was a social worker and Barney worked for the postal service. They were active members of their church and community as well as being involved with the NAACP. Barney also sat on the local board of the U.S. Civil Rights Commission.

On the evening of September 19-20, 1961, the Hills were returning to their home in New Hampshire from a vacation at Niagara Falls and Montreal, Quebec, Canada. What follows is one of the most incredible stories you will ever read.

Under hypnosis Betty described being shown where these beings were from and even drew a map of what she was shown. Although she claims the star map she was shown was more of a 3-dimensional hologram, she did her best. What she came up with nobody could make sense of until 1969 when a match was made from the viewpoint of the double star system Zeta Reticuli.

Again, a fascinating story to research.


Travis Walton

Travis Walton

The Travis Walton case was documented (and embellished) in the 1993 film Fire in the Sky.

Short version: Travis and 6 co-workers were logging in Arizona. While driving the bumpy dirt road down the mountain after work they saw a large brightly lit craft in a clearing. They stopped and Travis got out. He was hit by something (possibly some sort of light beam) and thrown to the ground. The others assumed he was dead and took off in the truck. They then realized they had to go back and check on him. When they returned he was gone. A search eventually took place, the men were suspected of murder and polygraphed. Five days later Travis showed up at a payphone dazed and not feeling so well.

As stated, the movie takes certain liberties with the story but there are some good Travis Walton lectures he has given on YouTube which are quite fascinating to watch. To me he comes across as your average guy who also happens to be pretty intelligent and well-spoken. This is one case I definitely suggest you look into if alien abduction interests you in any way.


Stan Romanek

Stan Romanek

I have to admit I know Stan to a certain degree and Jari knows him very well. His story is without a doubt one of the most fascinating you will ever hear mostly because there are so many others who experience things along with him. Many skeptics have visited Stan only to leave as true believers.

Things just seem to happen around Stan. Some people don’t care for his approach but to them I simply say how do any of us know how we’d react to something like this were it to happen to us? The answer is we don’t.

There is a movie coming out soon about the things that Stan has experienced. The title is extraordinary: the stan romanek story. The film and his three books (Messages, Answers and The Orion Regressions) are one of the things his critics jump on. The non-believers said the same thing about Whitley Strieber and will say it about the next person who writes a book about alien abduction as well.

The way I look at it, if something like this was actually happening to you, writing about it may be the best form of therapy out there.


Dolan, Zabel, Friedman

Dolan, Zabel, Friedman

Although there are many researchers out there currently, the three shown here are a good starting point to see what sort of work has already been done or is currently underway.

Richard Dolan and Bryce Zabel are heavily involved in the Disclosure movement and Stanton Friedman is a nuclear physicist who gets into propulsion systems and the actual technology that alien craft could use and that our own government may also currently be using. He’s very good at showing how many times the debunkers are incorrect when they state that something is impossible or simply can’t be done.

YouTube is a valuable source of information as many of their lectures are available for viewing as well as multiple documentaries.

Other individuals you may be interested in are as follows:

Dr. Roger Leir

Jaime Maussan

Nick Pope

Steven M. Greer

The late Budd Hopkins

Jim Marrs

Nick Redfern

Jacques Vallée

William J. Birnes

Charles Halt

The late J. Allen Hynek

Robert Dean

Linda Moulton Howe

The late Morris K. Jessup

Bob Lazar

This is just a list of names to assist you in getting an idea of the sort of things that are being done or have been researched in the past.

 Many times I will read or watch something with one or more of these individuals in it and something said will get me to thinking about something else. So don’t just listen to what they say but build upon it with questions of your own.


Government involvement generally falls under several categories.

  • The stuff we know about.
  • The stuff we don’t know about.
  • The stuff we think we know about.
  • And the  stuff we know about but they haven’t admitted to yet.
Project Bluebook

Project Bluebook

Project Blue Book is one the government admits to and did pretty much from the start, for the most part. They created a panel made up of non-believers instead of neutral individuals and after years and years stated that the project was closed and came to the conclusion that UFO’s weren’t real even though there’s some problems with this final verdict. One is that they admit there were some cases that they couldn’t disprove, for lack of a better word. Another is that their main skeptic ended up believing in UFO’s. They also said that the termination of the project resulted in the US Air Force no longer being involved in researching alleged UFO cases. Project Blue Book does have one claim to fame, it made the public aware of swamp gas. The predecessor to Project Blue Book was called Project Grudge. I’m not making this up.

It took them a very long time to come to this conclusion. There’s also some issues with Special Report No. 14 and several other problems with the entire thing as a whole but I’ll leave that to you to look into if you’re interested in learning the history of Project Blue Book.

One of the more recent trends in UFOlogy is the research into the black budget. An entire book could be (and has been) written on this subject but let’s just say the numbers are in the trillions of dollars according to those that investigate such matters.

Under the things we think we know about are the claims of underground alien research facilities. This is an area that, let’s be honest, there’s almost no chance of ever proving or disproving short of complete disclosure.

Majestic 12

Majestic 12

Majestic 12 (or MJ-12) is the supposed code name of an alleged secret committee of scientists, military leaders, and government officials, formed in 1947 by an executive order by U.S. President Harry S. Truman. The purpose of the committee would be to investigate the recovery of a UFO north of Roswell, New Mexico during July 1947.

Initial indications of such a group’s existence appeared in 1978 in declassified Canadian documents. Another reference to a classified group called “MJ-12” was discovered in 1980, but was later identified to be a hoax. In 1984 a set of documents was discovered in United States archives, which closely resemble real declassified documents, but which the FBI have declared to be “completely bogus”

Renowned skeptic the late Philip J. Klass was adamant that the MJ-12 documents were a hoax solely based upon the typeface used. He claimed that typeface was not used in 1947 but it turns out that Stanton Friedman found many Truman-era documents from that time period that did use the typeface included in the MJ-12 documents. Mr. Klass ended up paying Mr. Friedman a gentleman’s wager of $1,000 based on these findings. So the debate rages on.

Area 51 Satellite Image

Area 51 Satellite Image

According to the government, Area 51 didn’t officially exist until just recently. Apparently it’s just an ordinary old base despite all the high-tech secrecy and security.

In all fairness it’s possible that today it is just an ordinary old base but what about 5 years ago? Or 20 years ago? Most military bases you can get as far as the main gate. The closest you can get to Area 51 on public land is about 15 miles (with no view of the base).

Then there’s the topic of the Janet flights. What are the Janet flights?

“Janet” is the radio call sign of a private airline operated by EG&G, which shuttles workers into Area 51 from Las Vegas McCarran Airport. The planes are mostly white Boeing 737’s, with a red stripe on both sides. They can be seen at McCarran Airport, where the Janet airline has its own high security terminal in the northwest corner of the airport.

The Las Vegas Janet terminal is located in a fenced-off area in the northwest corner of Las Vegas McCarran Airport. It is surrounded by a large parking lot, with approximately 1620 marked parking spaces, which is usually more than 2/3 full on any given workday.

So as you can see, Area 51 is an interesting topic of research and you wouldn’t be alone if this was something that appealed to you.


UFO Types

UFO Classifications

The types of craft vary. The chart to the left seems to be overly specific as most reports are of a basic shape. This level of detail would be rare in my opinion.

Your standard shapes consist of:

  • Saucer or Disc
  • Cigar-shaped
  • Triangular (boomerang/triangle)
  • Spherical
  • Humanoid
  • Bell or acorn

Other shapes are reported and some seem to morph from one shape to another. Other common characteristics are lights and the ability to be there one moment then simply blink out and be gone. Another common report is one light appearing to break off into two or more craft.

One very common report is incredible speeds and the ability to make right angle turns while traveling at these speeds or changing direction entirely without turning or slowing down.


The Grays

The Grays, or Greys

Reports have been made of many types of ET’s. I have heard numbers regarding the species visiting us ranging from the 30’s to over 200. If someone tells you there are 67 alien species visiting the planet they are either guessing or lying to you. I have heard some compelling reasons why we are being visited but the bottom line is nobody knows. I’m not going to get into their agenda as first of all I don’t know and secondly there’s no way of knowing if any of the following are visiting us at all unless you personally meet one.

Following are the most common types of ET’s that are reported:

  • The Grays
  • The Tall Grays
  • The Reptilians (or Reptoids)
  • The Insectoids
  • The Pleiadians
  • Hybrids
  • The Tall Whites
The Tall Whites

The Tall Whites

I will give you a brief summary of what these different types are supposed to be about just so you have an idea.

The Grays to many seem to be the worker bees. Some believe that they are not 100% biological in nature but possibly a biological/AI (artificial intelligence) hybrid worker. They seem to carry out most of the dirty work and may be ruled by (or work for) another race that has been described as either much taller Grays or even looking remarkably humanoid. They appear to have zero emotions and no sense of humor at all.

The Tall Whites are supposedly working with our government in the Nevada desert. They can grow to be very tall (and live 100’s of years) but get very frail with age and require assistance from others. They are reportedly very into family and will kill a human if they so much as touch one of their offspring. They don’t understand our relationship with animals and find it very confusing that we keep them as pets and have any sort of relationship with them at all.



The Reptoids from what I’ve heard are the one race that may be malevolent. This is the race that has supposedly infiltrated our society to some extent. Again, all of this is hearsay and speculation.

The Insectoids are described as having a praying mantis look to them. I couldn’t find any real good pictures on short notice. Most of the photos I found looked more like ants or bees.

The Pleiadians or Nordics are generally described as extremely human looking, tall, very attractive and having blonde hair.

The Pleiadians are very New Age and apparently channel most of their communication. The little research I’ve done into Pleiadians I have found very confusing and difficult to follow. The main problem with them seems to be the people that swear by them. To me they come across as pretty strange individuals and this is coming from a paranormal/UFO researcher.



If you ever come across someone you’d describe as a UFO nutcase, they are probably really into the Pleiadians. These are the people that are really into crystals and alternative medicine with names like Moonbeam.

However, if the Pleiadians look like this woman, I’m all for them visiting any time they please.

The Hybrids appear to be just that, an alien/human hybrid. There is rampant speculation on why the ET’s (or a certain race at least) would be genetically engineering a hybrid race but the two in the lead are to better this planet or sustain their own race. If they are trying to better the planet they need to pick up the pace because in my opinion they are failing miserably.

Again, there’s no way to know their true agenda unless they decide to hold a press conference and explain their prime directive.

Supposedly the easiest way to spot a hybrid is their eyes and sort of an asymmetrical strangeness to the face. Think Victoria Beckham or Christina Ricci.

There are plenty of other supposed races as well as variations on the above such as the Grays and the Tall Grays and many other humanoids.


Alien Implant

Alien Implant

Why would aliens abduct humans? My guess is that with over 7 billion people on the planet they would have no problem finding people willing to be taken aboard a craft and experimented on.

The reason most commonly given is for that human/alien hybrid thing we were just discussing. Most abductions seems to revolve around the human reproductive system. They seem to be very interested in our naughty bits.

I’ll leave it up to you to discover how they supposedly get semen from men. Unfortunately it doesn’t involve that Pleiadian gal above or the line to get on that ship would be really, really long.

And as mentioned earlier, the ones doing all the poking and prodding are the little Grays. I told you they get all the dirty work. They are also in charge of removing you from and returning you to your comfy bed or your moving car.

And what’s the deal with implants? No not that kind of implant. These are tiny little things put into people. Many studies made on them show that they are made (at least partially) of the same material that makes up meteorites. So are these micro-meteorites that fly down from space, make it through our atmosphere and embed themselves inside someones leg? Are they tracking devices that the NSA would kill for? Do they monitor an individual like a tiny little EKG machine?

Here’s my personal take on what implants are used for. I do not believe they are tracking devices based on lots of research. My current belief is that these devices are used for DNA modification of the individual and also as a  way to download information to that individual on a cellular level. Think of them as a receiver that can then use that data to modify the human genome.




Unidentified Submerged Objects have been reported for hundreds of years. One of the interesting characteristics of these objects is that when they enter the water at high speeds, no splash is witnessed. Also when exiting, no water is seen to run off or drip from the craft. Many believe this is due to a field around the craft that repels the water so that the object never actually comes into contact with the water itself, even while submerged. This is also believed to allow them to travel at great speeds underwater.

Sightings of large craft entering and exiting the water (or simply coming near the surface) have been reported by countless civilians and military personnel. Even Christopher Columbus made journal entries of craft entering and exiting the ocean during his voyage to the New World.

If ET’s needed a  place to stay out of sight while here, a deep, mostly unexplored world that covers over 70% of our planet would be a good choice. Some of the main hot spots for USO activity centers around the Gulf Breeze area of Florida as well as Cuba.


Far side of the moon

Far side of the moon

Commonly referred to as the dark side of the moon, which is incorrect. The same portion of the moon always faces the Earth because over time the Earth’s gravitational pull has slowed the moons rotation to the point that it rotates at a speed that when combined with the Earth’s rotation, appears to not rotate at all. Coincidence? Perhaps.

The correct terminology is near side and far side of the moon. Since we can only see a little over 50% of the lunar surface, it’s natural to wonder what we’re missing. Many believe that the far side contains alien bases, structures and just about anything else one could imagine.

While it’s hard to say what (if anything) is on the far side of the moon, there appears to be plenty to study on the near side. There are countless videos on YouTube regarding what is being hidden from us on the side we see almost every night. One to look for is “Moon Rising” by Jose Escamilla. If you haven’t seen this documentary yet you really owe it to yourself to give it a viewing. Also look for anything regarding Project Clementine.

Other moon (and Mars) video’s to look for are ones by Richard C. Hoagland. I personally don’t care for him but have taken the time to watch and listen to hours of his videos and interviews on the subject.

Ask yourself, as with the ocean, where would be a great place to hide in plain sight if your mission was to survey the Earth?